One of the reasons for attention to development is the stark divide between rich and poor countries. The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) each year rates countries’ development according to its Human Development Index (HDI), a mix of factors intended to measure citizens’ access to health, education, and a decent standard of living.
In the 2011 Human Development Index, the top five countries were Norway, Australia, Netherlands, United States and New Zealand. The bottom four countries of the Index were Chad, Mozambique, Burundi and Congo (United Nations Development Program [UNDP] 2011) . Why is this, the case?