What India Think About Globalization
What India Think About Globalization

For many India seems to provide a case study of the paradoxes of globalization. Its IT sector offers a worldwide hub to Western countries who want to outsource their work to India’s educated workers, who are much cheaper than their American and European counterparts. Yet 60 percent of the country is still subsistence farmers; India is still considered a “developing country” in many ways.

The following article provides clips from Indian newspapers highlighting different perspectives on globalization.

Terrorism

Unfortunately, India has long history with terrorism that spans long before the Mumbai terrorist attacks in November 2008. Between 1970 and 2004, India faced 4,108 terrorist incidents, which led to 12,539 fatalities.

Among the many responses to the gruesome killings in Mumbai has been that of Muslims wearing black bands on Eid-ul-Adha. The act symbolised protest, pain and complete rejection of the killers.

But do Muslims need to go out of their way to proclaim to the world that the community does not endorse terrorism and are as angry and disgusted with what is happening as other communities in India? To have worn black bands on Eid was a touching gesture, akin to, say, Hindus doing the same on Diwali. But somehow, as a Hindu, I am disturbed to find my close friends having to wear bands to show their solidarity with the rest of India.

I can understand why India’s Muslims feel the need to do so. In the world we live in today, they are increasingly feeling threatened that they may be targeted, as they often have been in the past, by a violent ‘Hindu reaction’. However much secularists may say that terrorism has no religion, we know that sectarian violence in the subcontinent culminated in the Partition and a blood-bath unparalleled in the history of the world…

When a terror attack takes place, the surnames of most of the perpetrators turn out to be common to those of ordinary Muslims. When Hindu surnames surfaced after investigations into the blasts in Nanded, Malegoan, Ajmer and the Samjhauta Express, many Hindus reacted in disbelief and anger. I, like most from my community, am deeply upset that some minorities among Hindus could be terrorists and that their dastardly acts are being supported by a political party.

But as an Indian I feel embarrassed to find one community having to wear ‘India’ on their sleeves, when we have all expressed our solidarity to fight this war together. I would feel humiliated if a day comes when, as a Hindu, I will have to wear black bands to proclaim to the world that I have nothing to do with Hindu surnames involved in acts of terror.

To my Muslim friends, all I can say is thanks for doing what you have done. But please don’t do it again. We are together in this fight against terror and for justice.

Stitched Together.” Pradeep Magazine. Hindustan Times. December 16, 2008.

Trade

India has a growing service sector (30 percent of the labor force, 53 percent of the GDP), but the majority of the population works in agriculture (60 percent of labor force and 18 percent of the GDP). Some sectors of India’s economy have liberalized, such as telecommunications, while other industries are still highly regulated and are mainly based on government-owned entities.

While the U.S. is currently India’s biggest trading partner, China will soon take that position.

Economic ties between India and China are rapidly emerging as one of the most important bilateral relationships in the world

… First, trade between the two countries has grown very robustly… India-China trade grew at a 50% rate during 2002-2006 and will increase by a further 54% during 2007 to reach $37 billion.

Second, after adjusting for partner GDP (i.e., bilateral trade divided by the trading partner’s GDP), India’s trade with China is greater than that with Japan, the US, or the entire world…

Third, China already is (or will shortly become) India’s number one trading partner. From China’s side, India already is one of its top ten trading partners. Also, China’s trade with India is growing much faster than with any of the other nine. Thus, India is rapidly becoming an increasingly important trading partner for China.

… Since it is almost certain that, by 2050, China and India will be the two largest economies in the world, it is inevitable that bilateral trade between them will become the most important economic relationship in the world…

Anil K Gupta, Ralph J Tyler Professor of Strategy & Organisation and Research Director, Center for International Business Education & Research Robert H Smith School of Business, University of Maryland

Gupta, Anil. “The future of India-China trade.” The Economic Times. January 14, 2008.

Technology

India is known as the place for outsourcing IT. Outsourcing in India was enabled in the 1990s with the privatization and liberalization of the telecommunications sector. Medical transcription was one of the first industries to outsource to India in the 1990s. Today many tasks/industries are outsourced to India, including database marketing, billing and customer support, Web design, sales/marketing, accounting, tax processing, telesales/telemarketing, human resources, and biotech research.

 Foreign funds chasing Indian telecom industry may buck the trend of global economic downturn. In fact, telecommunication may turn out to be the most significant contributor to the country’s source of foreign direct investment (FDI) in the backdrop of providing licences to new players and the auctioning of 3G services…

When contacted, telecom secretary Siddhartha Behura shared the optimism and said that the telecom would attract a sizeable FDI in the years to come…

Mr Behura further said that the government would rather encourage new telecom players selling stake to foreign players as it would help rolling out of their services. “The company has to rollout services and must generate resources for that purpose. They are doing so by issuing fresh shares, and no one should be concerned about it,” he said…

The telecom ministry has, in fact, been trying to make it easier for the new telecom players to start operations. The ministry has recently announced that the rollout obligations would be eased to help the operators.

“All the new players such as Swan, Shyam, Loop, Videocon will have to arrange FDI as they themselves won’t be able to generate that kind of money required for starting up operations. So we can expect a lot of FDI coming to India through the telecommunication sector,” said Shetty.

Tiwari, Mansi and Shantanu Nandan Sharma. “Telecom to attract sizeable FDI in future.” The Economic Times. December 14, 2008.

Investment

Foreign Direct Investment in India’s IT sector is robust, while other sectors are not as open. The general global economy downturn has affected India. For example, FDI in India decreased 26 percent in October 2008. While overall FDI is low, some sectors, such as IT and other outsource-related industries hope to gain.

 Bad times in the West may force companies to offshore more jobs to cheaper destinations like India, making it the last bastion for jobs growth, although US President-elect Barack Obama is vocally against outsourcing.

India last bastion for high jobs growth.” Hindustan Times. November 18, 2008.

Culture

India has an ancient culture that spans over 5,000 years. Its culture is extremely diverse, influenced by many ancient cultures such as the Indo-Greeks, Arabs, Turks, Persians, and later on by Europeans, such as Dutch, British, Portuguese, Danes, and the French. The world’s major religions can be found there: Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Jainism, and Zoroastrianism. Indian music can be traced by to the 4th Century AD; Muslim rule in India influenced the transformation of Hindu prayer music to new forms of songs. Sanskrit plays and poems provide a long dramatic and written cultural history.

 The uniqueness of Indian culture is its composite and pluralistic nature. In no other part of the world has religious and cultural plurality co-existed and cross-fertilized each other so creatively. While Christians fought their denominational wars in the western hemisphere, Indian Christianity remained free from confessional conflicts and sectarian tensions. Shi’as and Sunnis in India do not kill each other as their counterparts do in our neighbourhood. Sikhism and Sufi mysticism witness the synergy of Hinduism and Islam. These, and not the communal outbursts of Hindutva, are the authentic signs of the vitality and creativity of Indian culture.

Culture, religion and regression.” The Hindu. Magazine. June 22, 2003.

Today India has vibrant culture; its cinema (Bollywood), music, and dance are treasured not only within India but by expatriate communities around the world.

Click here for a flash presentation by Sharmistha Acharya on Bollywood and Globalization: http://dishumdishum.com/BollyPresentation/presentation.html.

Based in Bombay (now Mumbai), a coastal city with colonial-era roots, Bollywood emerged out of a remarkable, albeit often uneasy, fusion of cultural movements, traditions, and innovations. Critically-minded connoisseurs of Bollywood have recognized, in Bollywood’s hybrid origins, the resonance of epic Indian modes of storytelling, right alongside the influence of Parsi theater (which itself drew generously from European sources), as well as the prominence of Muslim and Anglo-Indian actors…This robust, almost oversaturated hybridity allows Bollywood to demystify and remystify issues of political economy relying on dialogue, music, choreography, and characterization capable of being, at once, stirringly subtle and jarringly garish.

Jolly, Gubir, Zenia Wadhwani and Deborah Barretto. “Once Upon a Time in Bollywood.” The Asian Writer. January 9, 2008.

Health

India faces many challenges in the area of public health, such as lack of access to health care in rural areas, high rates of HIV/AIDs and other infectious diseases, and lack access to clean drinking water. One aspect of India’s health sectors that is strong though is its manufacturing of generic medications.


The recession in the US and other developed countries is expected to force many patients in those countries switch to low-cost, generic drugs — a business where Indian manufacturers score, points out Smitesh Shah, Vice Chairman, Pharmaceuticals Export Promotion Council.

The US Food and Drugs Administration has been approving an increasing number of generic drugs produced by Indian pharma companies over the last few months. In October, 16 generic drugs given the green signal as opposed to 12 drugs in September and eight in August (source: www.fda.gov)…

“We have seen an increase in research activities coming to our company… as there has been a pressure on big pharma companies, mainly from the Western world, to cut expenditure on R&D,” says Shaw.” [Chairman and managing director, Bangalore-based Biocon]

Bhayana, Neha, SuprotipGhosh, and Gaurav Choudhary. “Pharma and Healthcare: Sugar-coated pill.Hindustan Times. December 13, 2008.

Environment

India’s major environmental challenges include: deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air and water pollution;; non-potable tap water; and overstraining of natural resources due to large population.


Over 40 countries have banned it, the World Health Organisation’s International Agency for Research on Cancer, International Labour Organisation, Collegium Ramazzini have certified it as a human carcinogen, but India says ‘we do not have enough evidence, we need more science to conclusively prove that chrysotile asbestos causes cancer or diseases among workers in India’. This was India’s official position at the UN Convention on Chemicals in Rome last month.

… India and a few other countries blocked the listing of chrysotile asbestos, a fibrous mineral used in making roofs and pipes (commonly referred to as the ‘poor man’s construction material’) and endosulphan, a crop pesticide whose toxic effect has crippled villagers in Kerala’s Kasaragod district….

In the case of chrysotile asbestos, India said it won’t take a decision until a health study on the impact of this substance announces its findings. The study is being done by the Ahmedabad-based National Institute of Occupational Health (NIOH). However, what India failed to inform the international community was that the study was funded in part by the asbestos industry whose representatives provide ‘study samples’, ‘scientific studies’ and ‘comments’, and have access to all the findings of the study even while it’s on. Still worse, the study is kept under wraps and is not accessible to public health specialists or labour groups…”

Dutta, Madhumita. “Poisoning the system.” Hindustan Times. November 20, 2008.

Migration

The issue of migration in India is both a national issue (much of the Indian economy depends on internal migration) and an international issue (importance of remittances by Indian emigrees worldwide).

Probably more than at any time in the past, the Indian economy is being fuelled by the movement of labour. This movement is not simply from villages to towns and cities, but within and across districts, States and even national borders. It is mostly short-term and often repeated, although destinations may change. And while it has already created huge changes in the lives and work patterns of ordinary Indians, these consequences are yet to be adequately recognised and addressed by public policy.

The ways in which this migration has contributed to macroeconomic stability are numerous. Remittances sent back to India by Indians working abroad (dominantly but not exclusively in oil-exporting countries of the Persian Gulf and West Asia) have generated current account surpluses and contributed more to the Indian balance of payments (BoPs) since the early 1990s than all forms of capital inflow put together. Internal migration has played a crucial role in allowing rural people to cope with the consequences of agrarian distress and the ravaged rural economy in many parts of India.

…Much of this is not new. But there are new features: the increasing incidence of women travelling – on their own or in groups – to find work; the greater willingness of many people to travel long distances for short-term work or even without the promise of any work; the sheer extent of mass migration from certain areas; the growing likelihood of finding evidence of some migration in almost every part of India.

Not all of this migration in recent years has been because of push factors. There is no doubt that the availability of work in West Asia and in other countries, as well as the growing demand for more skilled workers such as software engineers and teachers in the developed countries, have played a role in increasing cross-border migration. But a very substantial part, especially of internal migration, is distress-led, driven by the complete collapse of rural employment generation, the economic difficulties of cultivation and also the inadequate employment opportunities in towns.

This is why most migrant workers in India today are poor and with few of the resources or social networks that could smoothen what can be a traumatic and painful process. Yet public policy does little to alleviate this – in fact, most public interventions and regulations work effectively to make the process even more difficult and traumatic. Given the sheer extent and proliferation of short-term migration as a basic source of income in India today, the lack of public recognition of the many dislocations it can cause for the poor is remarkable…

As migrants, these workers then do not have access to any of the public facilities for health care, since they are not resident in that area. They cannot buy their food requirements from the ration shops since they do not have ration cards valid for that place. If they have come with small children, they are unable to place them in local government schools, or even to access the local anganwadi for their legally recognised requirements. They are ignored by public schemes and programmes, including those related to such public health issues as immunisation drives…

To cap it all, migrants often end up being denied that most basic political right of Indian democracy, the right of expression through the ballot box. Being away from home can lead to exclusion from voters’ lists, or being away when the voting is actually taking place. This was definitely true for a considerable section of the electorate in the general elections held last year, which took place during a lean agricultural season when many rural people were forced to migrate to seek work…

Distress economic migration, of relatively short-term nature, is now a basic feature of social life in India. It contributes to macroeconomic stability even while imposing tremendous costs on those forced to undertake it. It is time for policymakers and the public became more sensitive to its manifold implications, and took whatever measures are necessary to ensure that something driven by distress did not create further trauma.

Ghosh, Jayati. “Migration and Public Policy.” Frontline. Volume 22 – Issue 10, May 07 – 20, 2005.

Development

A recent World Bank Reports notes that 42 percent of the Indian population lives below the international poverty line ($1.25/day) and that India is home to 1/3 of all the world’s poor people.

Forty-six percent of children under the age of three are malnourished. India faces education challenges (getting more kids into primary school), public health challenges (malnutrition and high infant mortality), and infrastructure challenges (insufficient power networks, roads, transportation system, ports). This article describes the current state of Indian economic development.

People living in poverty are more vulnerable to suicides, committed in a moment of complete dejection. The high number of suicide rate of Vidarbha farmers who were driven by poverty, indebtedness and deprivation is a case in point. Thousands of families in India who are unable to repay loans or have nothing left to eat have no option but to take their lives collectively…. Needless to say, poverty alleviation in India can only be a long term goal. The recent economic development has helped only upper and middle classes while a high proportion of citizens have been kept out of its ambit. In order to achieve a significantly higher rate of poverty reduction, the government will have to close the yawning gap between the haves and have notes so that the poorest of the poor can also reap the benefits of growth…

How serious are we in making sure that every Indian has access to affordable food and basic necessities of life? The time for debates by our economists and academics that hold forth endlessly on the definition and yardsticks of poverty, is gone. It is time for them to search sincerely for reasons why India’s citizens continue to be deprived of basic necessities like clothing, shelter, clean water and healthcare. It is also time for the government to take note of the World Bank Report and devise a future strategy for poverty reduction. With approximately a quarter of our population still living below the official poverty line, we have no time to waste.

Vakil, Sunita. “World Bank Report explodes the myth of shining India.” The Day After. October 10, 2008.

This article addresses the need for proper regulations to encourage competition within India and facilitate economic development.

 …A competition culture has yet to take root in India. Policymakers and the public meekly accept anti-competitive practices. The competition commission of India created over five years ago, has yet to start functioning. It has undertaken useful studies on the competition and the obstacles to it in many sectors of the economy.

A law and a commission are not enough to ensure competition. We need tough regulation with power to impose penalties that hurt. We need to be clear on the jurisdictions of sectoral regulators and the competition regulator. Professional management and good corporate governance create a good enabling environment for a competition culture. Placing the consumer at the centre is the main goal.

…There is no regulation of overseas mergers and acquisitions by companies operating within India, enabling market dominance by the merged entity in India. In the absence of a watchdog and enforcing authority for competition, regulation is not proactive in most sectors. In healthcare delivery, almost all elements — from manufacturers and the quality of the product to the paying of medical practitioners to prescribe their products, to the fact of retailers freely supplying all types of drugs without hindrance, or that over 40 per cent of drugs are fake — are important issues. The consumer faces huge health risks.

In education, especially professional and technical education, there is similar regulatory failure. Management education has over 1,400 government-recognized schools charging high fees that students pay because of the prospect of good jobs upon graduation. Most of them have poor facilities, untrained faculty, poor libraries, and so on. The student as a consumer of management education is being ripped off. The regulator, the All India Council for Technical Education, is ineffective. There is no competition authority to protect consumer interest.

Development requires competition. But competition must be subject to overseeing by regulators. Market players look for monopoly positions to ‘own’ the consumer through fair means like advertising, distribution, quality, service and so on. They can also entrench themselves by misusing their larger size to dominate and even destroy competition.

Competition policy, law and a commission cannot by themselves ensure that competition benefits the consumer. Easy entry for new entrants and exit, ample information available to all, preventing cartels, the misuse of inside information and practices that intimidate competitors, are all necessary. In a country of so many poor people, we might need to allow special pricing and other seemingly anti-competitive acts. Competition must not be allowed to destroy livelihoods of millions of small and self-employed producers. How much competition a nation must have depends on its stage of development and the country’s place in the world economy.

S.L. Rao, former director- general, National Council for Applied Economic Research

Rao, S.L. “A Fine Balance: Development needs competition, but it must be regulated.” The Telegraph. August 25, 2008.

IMF and World Bank

India was one of 17 founding members of the World Bank. Half of World Bank loans to India are interest –free. India is the largest single borrower of the World Bank. Recently, India received a $14 billion World Bank loan, to help recapitalize state-run banks that have liquidity problems, due to the global credit crisis.


International Law

One of the long-standing international law issues facing India is the sovereignty of Kashmir. The following is an opinion piece that does not support negotiations over the sovereignty of Kashmir.

Recently, some columnists have advocated that India should let go of Kashmir. While not wanting to wear patriotism on my sleeve, I would say that the silent suffering majority of India wants none of this. The ‘Kashmir issue,’ in fact, can no more be solved by dialogue either with the Pakistanis or the Hurriyat, leave alone the constitutional impossibility of allowing it to secede. This is because we do not know what kind of Pakistan there will be in a few years from now.

The Pakistan army today, according to all informed sources available to me, has a majority of captains and colonels who owe allegiance to the Taliban and Islamist fundamentalism. In another five years, these middle ranks will reach, through normal promotions, the corps commander level. We know that the government in Pakistan has always been controlled by the seven corps commanders of the army. Therefore a Taliban government in Pakistan five years hence seems a highly probable outcome. Jihad, that is, war against India will be the logical consequence of that outcome.

Since the Hurriyat in Kashmir is an organisation that cannot go against Pakistan, India has about five years to prepare for a decisive and defining struggle with Pakistan. We must prepare to win it to avoid the balkanisation of India. We therefore should refute those Indian columnists, academics, and politicians who crave or preen themselves on being popular in Pakistan, by sounding reasonable and secular on the issue of Kashmir.

…India should henceforth refuse to engage in any dialogue on Kashmir except one in which the other side accepts the whole of Kashmir as an integral and inalienable part of India. The people of Kashmir should be left in no doubt in their mind where the overwhelming number of citizens of India stand on the future of the State. Therefore, those who, at this crucial juncture of our history, advocate any dilution of this stand are leading the people of Kashmir to more misery. They are encouraging the forces of jihad to keep at their nefarious activities by raising hopes that, with rising costs, India will capitulate. Any democratically elected Indian government knows that it can never capitulate on issues of national integrity and risk an upheaval.

Subramanian Swamy, former Union Law Minister

Swamy, Subramanian. “Kashmir defines Indian identity.” The Hindu. Sep 25, 2008.

Women and Globalization

The article below highlights the status of women in Indian society.

…However, even as globalization offers opportunities for the economic emancipation of women via lucrative jobs in emerging services and information technology (IT) industry, pressures of everyday existence, changes in social milieu and expectations means that live-in relationships are on the rise.

They are a growing social reality, especially in states such as Maharashtra, where the female workforce mans the IT, outsourcing and services industries. It is no surprise that the landmark legislation was proposed in Maharashtra, a state that has witnessed two out of every five marriages end in divorce, according to figures from 2005.

Observers say that in India women have not been entirely averse to cohabitation as the socio-cultural norms have always attached a certain social stigma to divorce.

In order to escape this, economically well-off women, unlike their mothers or grandmothers, have been willing to test the compatibility of partners before marriage rather than endure societal and legal backlash or the social stigma attached to a failed marriage. ..

Ancient Indian laws contained the concept of the gandharva vivah (consensual marriage) and in places such as Gujarat, until some years ago, there was the prevalence of mitra karar (friendship contract), defined as a relationship in which a man and a woman could enjoy sexual relations without entitlement to any material benefits or responsibilities.

Still, there is no doubt that in the Indian patriarchal milieu the woman needs to be protected
Empirical studies point towards a dismal state of affairs. For example, every three minutes a woman is reportedly killed, raped or abused in India. Also, abortions and female infanticide have risen at an alarming rate; a joint study by the governments of Canada and India found that 500,000 unborn female babies are aborted in India each year.

A United Nations Population Fund study found that 60% of married Indian women were victims of rape, beating or sexual abuse at the hands of their husbands. In 2005, the National Crime Records Bureau recorded 155,553 crimes against women. The real figure may be much more as a large number of cases that go unreported due to the fear of social stigma…

Last October, the federal government passed a new law on domestic violence in which the wife, daughters, brothers, sisters and also the “other woman” were given legal protection and rights to their abusers’ assets.

In January 2008, the Supreme Court of India declared that children born out live-in relationships will no longer be deemed illegitimate. Also archaic language such as “whoreson” or “fruit of adultery” is now frowned on…

The simple fact that the issue has entered into the domain of public discourse will only help in consolidating the position of the Indian woman – even if in some cases she happens to be the “other woman”.

Bhardwaj, Priyanka. “India looks out for the ‘other woman’The Day After. October 10, 2008.

Energy

To fuel India’s growth, access to energy is extremely important. India is considering a mix of coal and nuclear energy options.

 The Communist Party of India (Marxist) on Saturday accused the government and the Congress leadership of mounting a “massive disinformation campaign” to push the nuclear deal, which “is a cover to promote strategic ties with the U.S.”…

Pipeline project

The party said that over half of India’s oil consumption was in the transport sector and a negligible quantum was used in power plants. On the other hand, natural gas from Iran would insulate India substantively from oil price shocks. Still the government had been dragging its feet on the Iran gas pipeline project at the behest of the U.S. and in consideration of the Hyde Act.

On power shortages, the CPI(M) pointed out that the real problem lay in starving the power sector of public investments…. Besides, even if the nuclear deal was signed now, it would take about eight years for imported reactors to get operational and these would cost three times more than coal-fired plants. As a result, the cost of electricity from nuclear plants would be twice that generated from coal-fired units. The primary fuel, uranium, was controlled by a small international cartel, as a result of its price had gone up by five times in the last few years. The quickest and cheapest way of removing electricity shortage was to build coal-fired plants, which take half the time required by nuclear plants, the CPI(M) said.

Nuclear energy for future

At the same time, the party pointed out, nuclear energy had an important place in India’s energy option and this route must be kept open for the future. However, this should be based on indigenous technology and sources to ensure energy security…

Even in the most optimistic scenario projected by the government, nuclear energy would at best meet only eight per cent of the electricity demand and about four per cent of the total primary energy demand, the CPI(M) said. “While the nuclear option should be kept open for the future, it has little importance for meeting our immediate energy needs.” The nuclear deal “is not about India’s energy security. Energy security lies in using indigenous energy resources such as coal and ensuring our future energy supplies from Iran and other countries in west and central Asia.”

Dikshit, Sandeep. “Nuclear energy is cover, intent is strategic U.S. ties: CPI.” The Hindu. Jun 22, 2008.

Human Rights

One of India’s main human rights challenges is trafficking of men, women, and children for forced labor and prostitution, as a source, destination, and transit country.

The arrest of the managing director of the Saravana Bhavan chain of hotels on charges of faking papers to help his employees get US visas is not an isolated case. Chennai is one of the leading human trafficking hubs in the country — the key players being scheming travel agents, some business firms which have branches overseas and a section of the entertainment industry which routinely sends people abroad on shooting assignments. All of them cash in the dreams of youth to work in a foreign land…

Business establishments use their status as an employer to push people out of the country.

“These establishments take a hefty fee from prospective migrants and give them false designations. They then create fake experience and professional certificates to substantiate their designation and to aid them clear the visa interviews. In a majority of the cases, the forgery goes unnoticed and people manage to get out of the country. Some cases get exposed during stringent visa interviews, where the visa officers try to test their knowledge in the subject mentioned in the experience certificate and professional qualifications,” the official added.

To tide over this, the applicants are given rigorous training to perform well in the visa interviews.

“Some people in the film industry in Tamil Nadu send scores of people abroad like this. If they have an entertainment show or a shooting schedule abroad, they will be taking 50 to 100 people along with them. If their real requirement is 100 people, they plan to include another 20 who are actually illegal migrants…

In March this year, police arrested a small-time actress, Flora, and two of her associates whom she tried to take to the US as her make-up men. They had forged an invitation to take part in a cultural programme.

The trio was arrested after the consulate made a complaint to the police. As a follow-up action, the consulate banned for life 200 film personalities, including many leading actors and directors, from travelling to the US.

Kumar, Praveen. “Chennai big hub of human trafficking.” The Times of India. November 11, 2008.


 1 http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-12/uom-itb120208.php
2 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/in.html
3 “The Offshore Outsourcing History of India.”
4 “FDI flows down 26 percent in October.” The Financial Express. December 16, 2008.
5 Sayeed, Ausuf. “India’s unique cultural heritage.” Culturopedia.
6 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/in.html
7 Vakil, Sunita. “World Bank Report explodes the myth of shining India.” The Day After. December 16, 2008. http://www.dayafterindia.com/oct108/national5.html
8 “Ten Things Worth Knowing About The World Bank in India.”
9 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/in.html

Pictures:
Terrorism:
http://www.flickr.com/search/?q=India+terrorism&l=cc&ss=0&ct=0
Technology: http://www.flickr.com/photos/paulk/66164294/
Development: http://www.flickr.com/photos/wili/294408123/
Migration: http://www.flickr.com/photos/worldbank/2244550362/
International Law: http://www.flickr.com/photos/giantrebus/258946810/
Women: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ehsank/2160863713/

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