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Introduction

Introduction: What Are Human Rights?

Arat, Z (1991). Democracy and human rights in developing countries. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publisher.

Cranston, M. W. (1973). What are human rights? London: Bodley Head.

Donnelly, J. (1982). Human rights and human dignity: an analytic critique of non-Western conceptions of human rights. American Political Science Review 76: 303-316.

Locke, J. (1690). Second treatise on government.

Park, H. S. (1987). Correlates of human rights: global tendencies, Human Rights Quarterly 9, 405-413.

Renteln, A. D. (1988). The concept of human rights. Anthropos, 83 (4), 343-364.

Roshwald, M. (1958). The concept of human rights. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 19, 354-379.

Strauss, L. (1953). Natural right and history. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Twiss, S. B. (1998). Moral grounds and plural cultures: interpreting human rights in the international community. The Journal of Religious Ethics 26:2, 271-282.

Twiss, S. B.  (2004). History, human rights, and globalization. The Journal of Religious Ethics 32:1, 39-70.

Vasek, K. (1977). Human rights: a thirty-year struggle: the sustained efforts to give force of Law to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. UNESCO Courier 30: 11.

United Nations. What are human rights?. Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights, Retrieved from: http://www.ohchr.org/en/issues/Pages/WhatareHumanRights.aspx

Waldron, J. (1984). Theories of rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Wasserstrom, R. (1979). Rights, human rights, and racial discrimination. In: D. Lyons (ed.), Rights; 46-57. Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Major Ideological Tensions within Human Rights Doctrine

Berlin, I. (1958). Two concepts of liberty: an inaugural lecture delivered before the University of Oxford on 31 October 1958. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Henkin, L. (1998). The Universal Declaration and the Cold War. American Philosophical Association Newsletter 97:2.

Renteln, A. D. (1988). The concept of human rights. Anthropos, 83 (4), 343-364.

Sinha, S.P. (1978). Human rights philosophically. Indian Journal of International Law 18, 139-159.

Twiss, S. B. (1998). Moral grounds and plural cultures: interpreting human rights in the international community. The Journal of Religious Ethics 26:2, 271-282.

United Declaration of Human Rights (1948).

Waldron, J. (1984). Theories of rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Alston, P. (1983). The Universal Declaration at 35: western and passe or alive and universal? International Commission of Jurists Review 31, 60-70.

Bailey, P. The creation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Universal Rights Network, Retrieved from: http://www.universalrights.net/main/creation.htm

Morsink, J. (1998). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: origins, drafting, and intent. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Twiss, S. B. (2004). History, human rights, and globalization. The Journal of Religious Ethics 32:1, 39-70.

United Declaration of Human Rights (1948).

Key International Documents

A brief history of the Laws of War (n.d.). Geneva Conventions: A Reference Guide, Society of Professional Journalists, Retrieved from: http://www.genevaconventions.org/

A United Nations priority: Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Human Rights Today: UN Briefing Papers, United Nations, Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/rights/HRToday/declar.htm

African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights. (n.d.). Retrieved from: http://www.achpr.org/english/_info/charter_en.html

American Convention on Human Rights. (n.d.). Retrieved from: http://www.cidh.org/Basicos/basic3.htm

Carozza, Paolo G. (2003). Subsidiarity as a Structural Principle of International Human Rights Law. American Journal of International Law 97:1, 38-79.

Convention on Genocide. (n.d.). Retrieved from: http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/p_genoci.htm

Convention on Discrimination against Women. (n.d.). Retrieved from: http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/e1cedaw.htm

Convention on Racial Discrimination. (n.d.). Retrieved from: http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/d_icerd.htm

Convention on the Rights of the Child. (n.d.). Retrieved from: http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/k2crc.htm

Donnelly, J. (2002). Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice. (2nd ed.) Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (n.d.). Retrieved from: http://conventions.coe.int/treaty/en/Treaties/Html/005.htm

Falk, R. (2000). Human Rights Horizons: the Pursuit of Justice in a Globalizing World. New York: Routledge.

Flowers, N. (Ed) (n.d.). Human rights fundamentals: what are human rights? In Human Rights Here and Now: Celebrating the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, University of Minnesota, Human Rights Resource Center.

Garner, B.A. (Ed.) (1999). Derogation. In Black’s Law Dictionary (7th ed.). St. Paul: West Group: Black’s Law Dictionary

Garner, B.A. (Ed.) (1999). Inalienable. In Black’s Law Dictionary. (7th ed.). St. Paul: West Group: Black’s Law Dictionary

Garner, B.A. (Ed.) (1999). Jus Cogens. In Black’s Law Dictionary. (7th ed.). St. Paul: West Group: Black’s Law Dictionary

Geneva Convention (1929).

International Bill of Rights (1966).

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966)

Marcus, J. (2002, June 13). U.S. formally dumps ABM Treaty. BBC News,

O’Connell, D.P. (1970). International Law, 2nd ed. Vol. 1. London: Stevens & Sons.

Reform run amok: The U.N.’s new Human Rights Council makes the old one look good. (2006, October 12). Washington Post.

Robertson, A.H. (1972). Human Rights in the World. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Sanchez, M. (2006, March 24). Where the Rights Commission went wrong. Washington Post.

Schenck v. United States. U.S. Supreme Court Case. Retrieved from: http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0249_0047_ZO.html

The Hague Convention, 1899-1954. World War I Document Archive, Brigham Young University Library, Retrieved from: http://net.lib.byu.edu/~rdh7/wwi/hague.html

The United States and the International Criminal Court. Retrieved from: http://www.hrw.org/campaigns/icc/us.htm.

United Nations (n.d.). Declarations and Reservations: International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights: United Nations, Retrieved from: http://www.ohchr.org/english/countries/ratification/4_1.htm

United Nations (n.d.). Introduction to the Human Rights Committee. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights: United Nations, Retrieved from: http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu2/6/a/introhrc.htm

Human Rights and Violence

Barack Obama restarts Guantánamo trials (2011, March 7). The Guardian. Retrieved from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/mar/07/guantanamo-bay-trials-restart

Convention against Torture (n.d.). Retrieved from:  http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/h_cat39.htm

Convention (I) for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field. Geneva (1949,  August 12. International Humanitarian Law – Treaties & Documents, International Committee of the Red Cross, Retrieved from: http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/7c4d08d9b287a42141256739003e636b/fe20c3d903ce27e3c125641e004a92f3!OpenDocument

Convention (II) for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea. Geneva (1949, August 12. International Humanitarian Law – Treaties & Documents, International Committee of the Red Cross, Retrieved from: http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/7c4d08d9b287a42141256739003e636b/44072487ec4c2131c125641e004a9977!OpenDocument

Convention (III) Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, Geneva (1949, August 12). International Humanitarian Law – Treaties & Documents, International Committee of the Red Cross, Retrieved from: http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/7c4d08d9b287a42141256739003e636b/6fef854a3517b75ac125641e004a9e68!OpenDocument

Convention (IV) Relative to the Protection of Civilians in Time of War. Geneva. (1949, August 12) International Humanitarian Law – Treaties & Documents, International Committee of the Red Cross, Retrieved from: http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/7c4d08d9b287a42141256739003e636b/6756482d86146898c125641e004aa3c5!OpenDocument

Greenhouse, L. (2007, October 9). Supreme Court refuses to hear torture appeal. The New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/09/washington/09cnd-scotus.html?_r=3

Hirsh, M. et al. (2005, February 25). Aboard Air CIA: the Agency ran a secret charter service, shuttling detainees to interrogation facilities worldwide. Was it legal? What’s next?” Newsweek. Retrieved from: http://www.icc-cpi.int/Menus/ICC/Situations+and+Cases/,  http://www.sc-sl.org/ABOUT/tabid/70/Default.aspx

Mayer, J. (2007, February 19). Whatever it takes: the politics of the man behind ’24.’ The New Yorker, 66.

Miller, M. (2007, February 13). ‘24’ gets a lesson in torture from the experts.” Los Angeles Times.

Politics and economy: The Geneva Conventions. (2004, May 21). NOW. Retrieved from: http://www.pbs.org/now/politics/geneva.html

Priest, D., Smith. R.J. (2004, June 8). Memo offered justification for use of torture. Washington Post, A01.

Rivkin Jr., D. B., Casey, L.A. (2003, January 11). It’s not torture, and they aren’t lawful combatants. Washington Post, A19.

Study guides: torture, inhuman or degrading treatment. (n.d.).  Human Rights Education Associates. Retrieved from: http://www.hrea.org/learn/guides/torture.html

United Nations. (n.d.). Special Rapporteur on Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment.” Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Retrieved from: http://www.ohchr.org/english/issues/torture/rapporteur/

U.S. takes seat on UN Human Rights Council. (2009, June 19). VOA News. Retrieved from: http://www.voanews.com/english/2009-06-19-voa29.cfm

War Crimes: The Nuremberg and Tokyo Trials. (2007). In Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved from: http://search.eb.com/eb/article-224687.

Genocide

About the Special Court for Sierra Leone. (n.d.) The Special Court for Sierra Leone,

Achievements of the ICTR. (n.d.) International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. Retrieved from:  http://69.94.11.53/default.htm

Barrow, G. (2003, January 6). Cambodia resumes UN Tribunal Talks. BBC News. Retrieved from: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/2633617.stm

Cambodia 1975: The genocide (n.d.). Retrieved from: http://www.ppu.org.uk/genocide/g_cambodia1.html

Cases. International Court of Justice. (n.d.).  Retrieved from: http://www.icj-cij.org/court/index.php?p1=1&p2=1.

Coining a word and championing a cause: the story of Raphael Lemkin. (n.d.).  Retrieved from: http://www.ushmm.org/conscience/history/lemkin/

Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (n.d.). Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, United Nations, Retrieved from: http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/p_genoci.htm

De Waal, A.  (2007, March 21). No such thing as humanitarian intervention: why we need to rethink how to realize the ‘Responsibility to Protect’ in wartime. Harvard International Review. Retrieved from: http://hir.harvard.edu/articles/1482/

Hinton, A. (2004, August 4). We can’t let the Khmer Rouge escape. Washington Post.

International Criminal Court: Basic Fact Sheet. (n.d.) Human Rights Watch. Retrieved from: http://hrw.org/campaigns/icc/whowhat.htm

International Justice: The International Criminal Court. (n.d.) Amnesty International. Retrieved from: http://web.amnesty.org/pages/icc-index-eng.

Kafala, T. (2003, July 31). What is a war crime? BBC News. Retrieved from: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/1420133.stm

Kilgannon, T. (2009, February 10). Obama may place the U.S under International Criminal Court. Retrieved from: http://www.humanevents.com/article.php?id=30632

Marks, S., Clapham, A. (2005). International Human Rights Lexicon. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Myths and facts about the International Criminal Court. (n.d.) Human Rights Watch, Retrieved from: http://www.hrw.org/campaigns/icc/facts.htm.

Rwanda: a historical chronology. (n.d.). Frontline, Retrieved from: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/rwanda/etc/cron.html

Rwanda: how the genocide happened (2004, April 1). BBC News.  Retrieved from: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/1288230.stm

Situations and cases. (July 2009).  International Criminal Court.

The Cambodian Genocide program. (n.d.). Yale University, Retrieved from: http://www.yale.edu/cgp/

The Court: history. (n.d.). International Court of Justice, Retrieved from: http://www.icj-cij.org/court/index.php?p1=1&p2=1

UN rules against Israeli barrier. (2004, July 9). BBC News. Retrieved from: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/3879057.stm

United Nations . (n.d). Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Retrieved from: http://www.ohchr.org/english/law/criminalcourt.htm.

United Nations. (n.d.) Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. United Nations Treaty Collections, Retrieved from: http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=XVIII-10&chapter=18&lang=en

Interventions

About UNMIK.(n.d.) UNMIK At a Glance, United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo. Retrieved from:  http://www.unmikonline.org/intro.htm

An introduction to the Responsibility to Protect. (n.d.)  Retrieved from: http://www.responsibilitytoprotect.org/index.php/about-rtop

Barsa, P. (Summer 2005). Waging war in the name of human rights? fourteen theses about humanitarian intervention. Perspectives 24.

Carey, H. F. (Fall 2001). U.S. domestic politics and the emerging humanitarian intervention policy: Haiti, Bosnia, and Kosovo. World Affairs. 164(2).

Cato Institute. (1995, June 3). Killing with kindness: the UN Peacekeeping Mission in Bosnia. Foreign Policy Briefing #34, Washington, D.C.  J. F. Hillen III.

Dietrich, J. W. (November 2003). Kosovo and the challenge of humanitarian intervention: selective indignation, collective action, and international citizenship. Human Rights Quarterly 24(4).

General Information. (n.d.) ICTY At a Glance, International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/icty/glance-e/index.htm

Key figures of ICTY Cases. (n.d.). ICTY At a Glance, International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/icty/glance-e/index.htm

Peterson, S. (2004). The future of humanitarian intervention. International Politics, 41(3).

Simons, M. (2006, March 13). Milosevic dies of heart attack, autopsy shows. The New York Times. Retrieved from: http://topics.nytimes.com/2006/03/13/international/europe/13milosevic.html

Terry, J. P. (August 2004). Rethinking humanitarian intervention after Kosovo: legal reality and political pragmatism. The Army Lawyer.

Impact of Globalization

About AI: Frequently Asked Questions (n.d.). Retrieved from: http://web.amnesty.org/pages/aboutai-faq-eng.

About HRW. (n.d.). Retrieved from: http://www.hrw.org/about/whoweare.html

Accelerating action against child labour. (2010). Retrieved from: http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=13853

Backgrounder: Child Labor in Agriculture. (n.d.) Retrieved from: http://hrw.org/backgrounder/crp/back0610.htm

Child Soldiers. (n.d.) Retrieved from: http://hrw.org/campaigns/crp/index.htm

China. (2007). The World Factbook 2007. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved from: https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ch.html.

Cohn, I. (Fall 2001). The protection of children and the quest for truth and justice in Sierra Leone.  Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 55, Iss. 1.

Colombia: FARC-EP hands over two police officers to ICRC. (n.d.). Regional News, International Committee of the Red Cross. Retrieved from: http://www.icrc.org/web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/html/colombia-news-090307!OpenDocument

Facts about child soldiers. (n.d.) Human Rights Watch. Retrieved from: http://hrw.org/campaigns/crp/fact_sheet.html

Falk, R. (2000). Human Rights Horizons: the Pursuit of Justice in a Globalizing World. New York: Routledge.

Focus: land rights in the Amazon River Basin. (n.d.). UN Cyberschool Bus; Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/cyberschoolbus/indigenous/locate_focus.asp

From stitching to school: combating child labour in the soccer ball industry in Pakistan. (2004). International Labor Organization and the International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour. Retrieved from: http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do;jsessionid=0a038009ce9ee54e8c77b3b4e6d8b29933da52f091d?productId=2099

From the Battle of Solferino to the eve of the First World War. (2004, December 28). International Committee for the Red Cross. Retrieved from: http://www.icrc.org/web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/html/57JNVP.

Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child. (n.d.). Human Rights Library, University of Minnesota. Retrieved from: http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/childrights.html.

Hornberger, N. H.(October 1998). Language policy, language education, language rights: indigenous, immigrant, and international perspectives. Language in Society, Vol. 27, Iss. 4. Retrieved from:http://www.icbl.org/index.php/icbl/Universal/MBT/States-Parties

Human rights violations related to women’s sexual autonomy and reproductive choices. (n.d.). Human Rights Watch, Retrieved from: http://hrw.org/english/docs/2005/07/07/americ11295.htm

International Labor Organization (ILO) Convention 138, http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/convde.pl?C138

Marks, S., Clapham, A. (2005). International Human Rights Lexicon. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Path to the convention on the Rights of the Child. (n.d.) UNICEF, Retrieved from: http://www.unicef.org/crc/index_30197.html

Peang-Meth, A. (Winter 2002). The rights of indigenous peoples and their fight for self-determination. World Affairs, Vol. 164, No. 3.

Sierra Leone: sowing terror; atrocities against civilians in Sierra Leone. (July 1998). Human Rights Watch, Vol. 10, No. 3. Retrieved from: http://www.hrw.org/reports98/sierra/

States Parties” International Campaign to Ban Landmines.

The ICRC’s mandate and mission (n.d.) International Committee for the Red Cross, Retrieved from: http://www.icrc.org/Web/Eng/siteeng0.nsf/htmlall/section_mandate?OpenDocument

Trafficking in Persons Report: Introduction. (June 2012). Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons. Retrieved from:L http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/192587.pdf

Twiss, S. B. (2004). History, human rights, and globalization. The Journal of Religious Ethics 32:1, 39-70.

Underage and unprotected: child labor in Egypt’s cotton fields. (n.d.). Retrieved from: http://www.hrw.org/reports/2001/egypt/Egypt01.htm

UNICEF Statistics; http://www.unicef.org/protection/index_childlabour.html

United Nations (n.d.). Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Retrieved from: http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/33.htm

United Nations. (n.d.) Convention on the Rights of the Child The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Retrieved from: http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/k2crc.htm

United Nations (n.d.). Declaration on the Rights of the Child. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Retrieved from:  http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/25.htm

United Nations (n.d.). Leaflet 10: indigenous peoples and the environment. United Nations High Commissioner on Human Rights; Retrieved from: http://www.ohchr.org/english/about/publications/docs/indileaflet10.doc

United Nations (2002, February 5). Status of Ratifications, Reservations and Declarations: Convention on Consent to Marriage, Minimum Age for Marriage and Registration of Marriages.  United Nations Treaty Collection. Retrieved from: http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/treaty3_.htm

What are the origins of international humanitarian law. (2002, October 31). International Committee for the Red Cross. Retrieved from: http://www.icrc.org/web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/html/5KZFR8.

Who we are: our mission and role (n.d.). International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, Retrieved from: http://www.ifrc.org/who/index.asp?navid=03_01

Women’s rights. (n.d.).  Retrieved from: http://hrw.org/women/

World Health Organization (June 2000). Female Genital Mutilation. Fact Sheet #241. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs241/en/index.html

Changing Players: Abusers and Guarantors of Human Rights

Henry D. (1828-1910). (1988, April 6). International Committee for the Red Cross. Retrieved from: http://www.icrc.org/Web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/htmlall/57JNVQ

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